Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Greece
Title: Traumatic Brain Injury as a risk factor for Dementia: Literature review
Anastasia-Ervina Sela is a student at the 4th year of Nursing at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens.
Dementia is one of the most serious complications of Traumatic Brain Injury. This disease can be mainly caused by road accidents and falls, clearly because the effect of the force on the brain is stronger and the changes in brain function are more radical. A retrospective cohort study, which was approved by the University of California, San Francisco and Human Research Committee and was performed from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2011 (follow-up, 5-7 years), found that among 51799 patients with trauma, 4361 developed dementia compared with 6610 patients with non-TBI trauma. The correlation of Traumatic Brain Injury and Dementia is evident especially in the larger age groups of the population. In addition, several epidemiological studies suggest that Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for Dementia, particularly for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), although a significant association has not always been detected. There is evidence that in mild and severe Traumatic Brain Injuries most patients have emerged after years Dementia in contrast to those patients who just had a minor injury. In conclusion, Traumatic Brain Injury can be associated to a significant degree with the risk of developing Dementia especially to the people with increased risk. Given the high rates of TBI to the general population serious Dementia prevention measures should be taken in such incidents and clearly to carry out more studies and even longer in order to fully understand the mechanisms that affect between traumatic brain injury and dementia.